You’ve probably visited a site and attempted to sign-up only to be met with errors such as:

- Password needs a capital letter
- Password needs a special character
- Password needs to be at least 8 characters

I just released a package in Go that solves this problem. Check it out and give it a star here: go-password-validator. If you want to understand how it works, and how to properly validate user passwords, read on.

Not only are the rules above quite annoying, but they can also be a security *flaw* in the system. Take for example a strong passphrase: `super worm eaten human trike`

. That passphrase has plenty of entropy (randomness) but it wouldn’t pass the first two validation steps given above. XKCD puts this best:

## The Problem - Allow Users to Use Any Password Format as Long as It Has Enough Entropy 🔗

We don’t care if a password only has lowercase letters if it’s long. All that matters is the entropy. Entropy in this context refers to the number of brute-force guesses it would take to guess a password, and we measure it in bits (the exponent in `2^n`

). Refer to the following chart to see how various entropy levels contribute to the time it takes to brute force a password.

## How To Determine Entropy Given a Password 🔗

The way go-password-validator works is my favorite (obviously, I wrote it), but there is certainly room for improvement. Let’s take a look at the process. From its Readme:

First, we determine the “base” number. The base is a sum of the different “character sets” found in the password.

The current character sets include:

- 26 lowercase letters
- 26 uppercase
- 10 digits
- 32 special characters -
`!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_{|}~`

Using at least one character from each set your base number will be `94: 26+26+10+32 = 94`

Every unique character that doesn’t match one of those sets will add `1`

to the base.

If you only use, for example, lowercase letters and numbers, your base will be `36: 26+10 = 36`

.

After we have calculated a base, the total number of brute-force-guesses is found using the following formulae: `base^length`

A password using base 26 with 7 characters would require `26^7`

, or `8031810176`

guesses.

Once we know the number of guesses it would take, we can calculate the actual entropy in bits using `log2(guesses)`

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- Write modern code in JavaScript, Python and Go
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